About Mongolia

Area1,564,100 km2
Population3,000,000
CapitalUlaanbaatar 928,500
PresidentTsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
ReligionTibetan Buddhist, Muslim
Life Expectancy61 years

GEOGRAPHY

Mongolia is situated, Central Asian nation bounded by Russia and China. It has a total area of 1,564,100sq. km . The capital and largest city is Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia is an arid plateau region with mountains in the north and the Gobi dominates west, its center and southeast. Temperatures are very cold in winter and warm to hot in summer. Annual rainfall seldom exceeds 3 80 mm (15 in) in the mountains and 125 mm (5 in) in the desert. Mongolia's primary resources are its stock-raising prairies, its fur trade, and its mostly unexploited minerals.

PEOPLE

The population of Mongolia (2004 estimate) is 2,533,100, 95 percent of whom are Khalkha Mongols. Other groups are Buryat Mongols and Kazaks. Many people speak Mongolian, an Altaic language, although Russian was formerly taught in the schools.

CLIMATE

Mongolia's climate is harsh, with temperatures ranging in winter from a high of -21° C (-5° F) to a low of -30° C (-22° F) and in summer between 10° and 27° C (50° and 80° F). Winters are dry, and summer rainfall seldom exceeds 380 mm (15 in) in the mountains and 125 mm (5 in) in the desert.

HISTORY

Mongolian ancient history reaches back to the 12th century. Tibetan Buddhist theocracy and secular Mongol aristocracy ruled the country from 1696 until the 20th century, under the suzerainty of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty of China. Mongolia declared independence from China after the Chinese revolution of 1911. Mongolian Revolutionists established a Provisional People's Government in 1921. The Mongolian People's Republic was set up after the death of the last Buddhist ruler in 1924. Mongolia maintained close ties with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). In 1992 a Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party won a majority in parliamentary elections

LANGUAGE

The Mongolian language is one of the Altaic languages. Khalkha Mongolian is the official language. Kazak is spoken by 5% of the population. There are also many Mongolian dialects.

ADMINISTRATION

Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces, which are subdivided into districts, and the city of Ulaanbaatar. Local governments consist of hurals (assemblies) of representatives elected to four-year terms. The president is head of state and is also elected to a four-year term. Voting is universal beginning at age 18.

RELIGION

The traditional faith in Mongolia is Lamaist Buddhism, which the Communist government began suppressing in 1929. In 1992 the country adopted a democratic constitution that established the separation of church and state. Some monasteries have since reopened, and Buddhists are again openly practicing their faith. As a result of the years of government suppression of religion, however, many Mongolians are now thought to be nonreligious or atheistic.GEOGRAPHY
Mongolia is situated, Central Asian nation bounded by Russia and China. It has a total area of 1,564,100sq. km . The capital and largest city is Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia is an arid plateau region with mountains in the north and the Gobi dominates west, its center and southeast. Temperatures are very cold in winter and warm to hot in summer. Annual rainfall seldom exceeds 3 80 mm (15 in) in the mountains and 125 mm (5 in) in the desert. Mongolia's primary resources are its stock-raising prairies, its fur trade, and its mostly unexploited minerals.